Use a variances test to determine whether the variability of two groups differs. In this post, we’ll work through a two-sample variances test that Excel provides. Even if Excel isn’t your primary statistical software, this post provides an excellent introduction to variance tests. Excel refers to this analysis as F-Test Two-Sample for Variances. [Read more…] about How to Test Variances in Excel

# analysis example

## How to do Two-Way ANOVA in Excel

Use two-way ANOVA to assess differences between the group means that are based on two categorical factors. In this post, we’ll work through two-way ANOVA using Excel. Even if Excel isn’t your main statistical package, this post is an excellent introduction to two-way ANOVA. Excel refers to this analysis as two factor ANOVA. [Read more…] about How to do Two-Way ANOVA in Excel

## 5 Ways to Find Outliers in Your Data

Outliers are data points that are far from other data points. In other words, they’re unusual values in a dataset. Outliers are problematic for many statistical analyses because they can cause tests to either miss significant findings or distort real results.

Unfortunately, there are no strict statistical rules for definitively identifying outliers. Finding outliers depends on subject-area knowledge and an understanding of the data collection process. While there is no solid mathematical definition, there are guidelines and statistical tests you can use to find outlier candidates. [Read more…] about 5 Ways to Find Outliers in Your Data

## How to do One-Way ANOVA in Excel

Use one-way ANOVA to determine whether the means of at least three groups are different. Excel refers to this test as Single Factor ANOVA. This post is an excellent introduction to performing and interpreting one-way ANOVA even if Excel isn’t your primary statistical software package. [Read more…] about How to do One-Way ANOVA in Excel

## How to do t-Tests in Excel

Excel can perform various statistical analyses, including t-tests. It is an excellent option because nearly everyone can access Excel. This post is a great introduction to performing and interpreting t-tests even if Excel isn’t your primary statistical software package.

In this post, I provide step-by-step instructions for using Excel to perform t-tests. Importantly, I also show you how to select the correct form of t-test, choose the right options, and interpret the results. I also include links to additional resources I’ve written, which present clear explanations of relevant t-test concepts that you won’t find in Excel’s documentation. And, I use an example dataset for us to work through and interpret together! [Read more…] about How to do t-Tests in Excel

## Revisiting the Monty Hall Problem with Hypothesis Testing

The Monty Hall Problem is where Monty presents you with three doors, one of which contains a prize. He asks you to pick one door, which remains closed. Monty opens one of the other doors that does not have the prize. This process leaves two unopened doors—your original choice and one other. He allows you to switch from your initial choice to the other unopened door. Do you accept the offer?

If you accept his offer to switch doors, you’re twice as likely to win—66% versus 33%—than if you stay with your original choice.

Mind-blowing, right?

The solution to the Monty Hall Problem is tricky and counter-intuitive. It did trip up many experts back in the 1980s. However, the correct answer to the Monty Hall Problem is now well established using a variety of methods. It has been proven mathematically, with computer simulations, and empirical experiments, including on television by both the Mythbusters (CONFIRMED!) and James Mays’ Man Lab. You won’t find any statisticians who disagree with the solution.

In this post, I’ll explore aspects of this problem that have arisen in discussions with some stubborn resisters to the notion that you can increase your chances of winning by switching!

The Monty Hall problem provides a fun way to explore issues that relate to hypothesis testing. I’ve got a lot of fun lined up for this post, including the following!

- Using a computer simulation to play the game 10,000 times.
- Assessing sampling distributions to compare the 66% percent hypothesis to another contender.
- Performing a power and sample size analysis to determine the number of times you need to play the Monty Hall game to get an answer.
- Conducting an experiment by playing the game repeatedly myself, record the results, and use a proportions hypothesis test to draw conclusions! [Read more…] about Revisiting the Monty Hall Problem with Hypothesis Testing

## Using Post Hoc Tests with ANOVA

Post hoc tests are an integral part of ANOVA. When you use ANOVA to test the equality of at least three group means, statistically significant results indicate that not all of the group means are equal. However, ANOVA results do not identify which particular differences between pairs of means are significant. Use post hoc tests to explore differences between multiple group means while controlling the experiment-wise error rate.

In this post, I’ll show you what post hoc analyses are, the critical benefits they provide, and help you choose the correct one for your study. Additionally, I’ll show why failure to control the experiment-wise error rate will cause you to have severe doubts about your results. [Read more…] about Using Post Hoc Tests with ANOVA

## One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests Explained

Choosing whether to perform a one-tailed or a two-tailed hypothesis test is one of the methodology decisions you might need to make for your statistical analysis. This choice can have critical implications for the types of effects it can detect, the statistical power of the test, and potential errors.

In this post, you’ll learn about the differences between one-tailed and two-tailed hypothesis tests and their advantages and disadvantages. I include examples of both types of statistical tests. In my next post, I cover the decision between one and two-tailed tests in more detail.

[Read more…] about One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests Explained

## Introduction to Bootstrapping in Statistics with an Example

Bootstrapping is a statistical procedure that resamples a single dataset to create many simulated samples. This process allows you to calculate standard errors, construct confidence intervals, and perform hypothesis testing for numerous types of sample statistics. Bootstrap methods are alternative approaches to traditional hypothesis testing and are notable for being easier to understand and valid for more conditions.

In this blog post, I explain bootstrapping basics, compare bootstrapping to conventional statistical methods, and explain when it can be the better method. Additionally, I’ll work through an example using real data to create bootstrapped confidence intervals. [Read more…] about Introduction to Bootstrapping in Statistics with an Example

## Estimating a Good Sample Size for Your Study Using Power Analysis

Determining a good sample size for a study is always an important issue. After all, using the wrong sample size can doom your study from the start. Fortunately, power analysis can find the answer for you. Power analysis combines statistical analysis, subject-area knowledge, and your requirements to help you derive the optimal sample size for your study.

Statistical power in a hypothesis test is the probability that the test will detect an effect that actually exists. As you’ll see in this post, both under-powered and over-powered studies are problematic. Let’s learn how to find a good sample size for your study! [Read more…] about Estimating a Good Sample Size for Your Study Using Power Analysis

## Understanding Interaction Effects in Statistics

Interaction effects occur when the effect of one variable depends on the value of another variable. Interaction effects are common in regression analysis, ANOVA, and designed experiments. In this blog post, I explain interaction effects, how to interpret them in statistical designs, and the problems you will face if you don’t include them in your model. [Read more…] about Understanding Interaction Effects in Statistics

## Using Log-Log Plots to Determine Whether Size Matters

Log-log plots display data in two dimensions where both axes use logarithmic scales. When one variable changes as a constant power of another, a log-log graph shows the relationship as a straight line. In this post, I’ll show you why these graphs are valuable and how to interpret them. [Read more…] about Using Log-Log Plots to Determine Whether Size Matters

## When Do You Need to Standardize the Variables in a Regression Model?

Standardization is the process of putting different variables on the same scale. In regression analysis, there are some scenarios where it is crucial to standardize your independent variables or risk obtaining misleading results.

In this blog post, I show when and why you need to standardize your variables in regression analysis. Don’t worry, this process is simple and helps ensure that you can trust your results. In fact, standardizing your variables can reveal essential findings that you would otherwise miss! [Read more…] about When Do You Need to Standardize the Variables in a Regression Model?

## Flu Shots, How Effective Are They?

With the arrival of Fall in the Northern hemisphere, it’s flu season again.

Do you debate getting a flu shot every year? I do get flu shots every year. I realize that they’re not perfect, but I figure they’re a low-cost way to reduce my chances of a crummy week suffering from the flu.

The media report that flu shots have an effectiveness of approximately 68%. But, what does that mean exactly? What is the absolute reduction in risk? Are there long-term benefits?

In this blog post, I explore the effectiveness of flu shots from a statistical viewpoint. We’ll statistically analyze the data ourselves so we can go beyond the simplified accounts that the media presents. I’ll also model the long-term outcomes you can expect with regular flu vaccinations. By the time you finish this post, you’ll have a crystal clear picture of flu shot effectiveness. Some of the results surprised me! [Read more…] about Flu Shots, How Effective Are They?

## Understand Precision in Predictive Analytics to Avoid Costly Mistakes

Precision in predictive analytics refers to how close the model’s predictions are to the observed values. The more precise the model, the closer the data points are to the predictions. When you have an imprecise model, the observations tend to be further away from the predictions, thereby reducing the usefulness of the predictions. If you have a model that is not sufficiently precise, you risk making costly mistakes! [Read more…] about Understand Precision in Predictive Analytics to Avoid Costly Mistakes

## How to Choose Between Linear and Nonlinear Regression

As you fit regression models, you might need to make a choice between linear and nonlinear regression models. The field of statistics can be weird. Despite their names, both forms of regression can fit curvature in your data. So, how do you choose? In this blog post, I show you how to choose between linear and nonlinear regression models. [Read more…] about How to Choose Between Linear and Nonlinear Regression

## Comparing Regression Lines with Hypothesis Tests

How do you compare regression lines statistically? Imagine you are studying the relationship between height and weight and want to determine whether this relationship differs between basketball players and non-basketball players. You can graph the two regression lines to see if they look different. However, you should perform hypothesis tests to determine whether the visible differences are statistically significant. In this blog post, I show you how to determine whether the differences between coefficients and constants in different regression models are statistically significant. [Read more…] about Comparing Regression Lines with Hypothesis Tests

## Identifying the Most Important Independent Variables in Regression Models

You’ve settled on a regression model that contains independent variables that are statistically significant. By interpreting the statistical results, you can understand how changes in the independent variables are related to shifts in the dependent variable. At this point, it’s natural to wonder, “Which independent variable is the most important?” [Read more…] about Identifying the Most Important Independent Variables in Regression Models

## Using Data Mining to Select Regression Models Can Create Serious Problems

Data mining and regression seem to go together naturally. I’ve described regression as a seductive analysis because it is so tempting and so easy to add more variables in the pursuit of a larger R-squared. In this post, I’ll begin by illustrating the problems that data mining creates. To do this, I’ll show how data mining with regression analysis can take randomly generated data and produce a misleading model that appears to have significant variables and a good R-squared. Then, I’ll explain how data mining creates these deceptive results and how to avoid them. [Read more…] about Using Data Mining to Select Regression Models Can Create Serious Problems

## Guide to Stepwise Regression and Best Subsets Regression

Automatic variable selection procedures are algorithms that pick the variables to include in your regression model. Stepwise regression and Best Subsets regression are two of the more common variable selection methods. In this post, I compare how these methods work and which one provides better results. [Read more…] about Guide to Stepwise Regression and Best Subsets Regression