Use a variances test to determine whether the variability of two groups differs. In this post, we’ll work through a two-sample variances test that Excel provides. Even if Excel isn’t your primary statistical software, this post provides an excellent introduction to variance tests. Excel refers to this analysis as F-Test Two-Sample for Variances. [Read more…] about How to Test Variances in Excel

# Hypothesis Testing

## How to do t-Tests in Excel

Excel can perform various statistical analyses, including t-tests. It is an excellent option because nearly everyone can access Excel. This post is a great introduction to performing and interpreting t-tests even if Excel isn’t your primary statistical software package.

In this post, I provide step-by-step instructions for using Excel to perform t-tests. Importantly, I also show you how to select the correct form of t-test, choose the right options, and interpret the results. I also include links to additional resources I’ve written, which present clear explanations of relevant t-test concepts that you won’t find in Excel’s documentation. And, I use an example dataset for us to work through and interpret together! [Read more…] about How to do t-Tests in Excel

## Low Power Tests Exaggerate Effect Sizes

If your study has low statistical power, it will exaggerate the effect size. What?!

Statistical power is the ability of a hypothesis test to detect an effect that exists in the population. Clearly, a high powered study is a good thing just for being able to identify these effects. Low power reduces your chances of discovering real findings. However, many analysts don’t realize that low power also inflates the effect size.

In this post, I show how this unexpected relationship between power and exaggerated effect sizes exists. I’ll also tie it to other issues, such as the bias of effects published in journals and other matters about statistical power. I think this post will be eye-opening and thought provoking! As always, I’ll use many graphs rather than equations. [Read more…] about Low Power Tests Exaggerate Effect Sizes

## Revisiting the Monty Hall Problem with Hypothesis Testing

The Monty Hall Problem is where Monty presents you with three doors, one of which contains a prize. He asks you to pick one door, which remains closed. Monty opens one of the other doors that does not have the prize. This process leaves two unopened doors—your original choice and one other. He allows you to switch from your initial choice to the other unopened door. Do you accept the offer?

If you accept his offer to switch doors, you’re twice as likely to win—66% versus 33%—than if you stay with your original choice.

Mind-blowing, right?

The solution to the Monty Hall Problem is tricky and counter-intuitive. It did trip up many experts back in the 1980s. However, the correct answer to the Monty Hall Problem is now well established using a variety of methods. It has been proven mathematically, with computer simulations, and empirical experiments, including on television by both the Mythbusters (CONFIRMED!) and James Mays’ Man Lab. You won’t find any statisticians who disagree with the solution.

In this post, I’ll explore aspects of this problem that have arisen in discussions with some stubborn resisters to the notion that you can increase your chances of winning by switching!

The Monty Hall problem provides a fun way to explore issues that relate to hypothesis testing. I’ve got a lot of fun lined up for this post, including the following!

- Using a computer simulation to play the game 10,000 times.
- Assessing sampling distributions to compare the 66% percent hypothesis to another contender.
- Performing a power and sample size analysis to determine the number of times you need to play the Monty Hall game to get an answer.
- Conducting an experiment by playing the game repeatedly myself, record the results, and use a proportions hypothesis test to draw conclusions! [Read more…] about Revisiting the Monty Hall Problem with Hypothesis Testing

## Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Means

To determine whether the difference between two means is statistically significant, analysts often compare the confidence intervals for those groups. If those intervals overlap, they conclude that the difference between groups is not statistically significant. If there is no overlap, the difference is significant.

While this visual method of assessing the overlap is easy to perform, regrettably it comes at the cost of reducing your ability to detect differences. Fortunately, there is a simple solution to this problem that allows you to perform a simple visual assessment and yet not diminish the power of your analysis.

In this post, I’ll start by showing you the problem in action and explain why it happens. Then, we’ll proceed to an easy alternative method that avoids this problem. [Read more…] about Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Means

## Can High P-values Be Meaningful?

Can high p-values be helpful? What do high p-values mean?

Typically, when you perform a hypothesis test, you want to obtain low p-values that are statistically significant. Low p-values are sexy. They represent exciting findings and can help you get articles published.

However, you might be surprised to learn that higher p-values, the ones that are not statistically significant, are also valuable. In this post, I’ll show you the potential value of a p-value that is greater than 0.05, or whatever significance level you’re using. [Read more…] about Can High P-values Be Meaningful?

## When Can I Use One-Tailed Hypothesis Tests?

One-tailed hypothesis tests offer the promise of more statistical power compared to an equivalent two-tailed design. While there is some debate about when you can use a one-tailed test, the general consensus among statisticians is that you should use two-tailed tests unless you have concrete reasons for using a one-tailed test.

In this post, I discuss when you should and should not use one-tailed tests. I’ll cover the different schools of thought and offer my own opinion. [Read more…] about When Can I Use One-Tailed Hypothesis Tests?

## One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests Explained

Choosing whether to perform a one-tailed or a two-tailed hypothesis test is one of the methodology decisions you might need to make for your statistical analysis. This choice can have critical implications for the types of effects it can detect, the statistical power of the test, and potential errors.

In this post, you’ll learn about the differences between one-tailed and two-tailed hypothesis tests and their advantages and disadvantages. I include examples of both types of statistical tests. In my next post, I cover the decision between one and two-tailed tests in more detail.

[Read more…] about One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests Explained

## Introduction to Bootstrapping in Statistics with an Example

Bootstrapping is a statistical procedure that resamples a single dataset to create many simulated samples. This process allows you to calculate standard errors, construct confidence intervals, and perform hypothesis testing for numerous types of sample statistics. Bootstrap methods are alternative approaches to traditional hypothesis testing and are notable for being easier to understand and valid for more conditions.

In this blog post, I explain bootstrapping basics, compare bootstrapping to conventional statistical methods, and explain when it can be the better method. Additionally, I’ll work through an example using real data to create bootstrapped confidence intervals. [Read more…] about Introduction to Bootstrapping in Statistics with an Example

## Types of Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis tests use sample data to make inferences about the properties of a population. You gain tremendous benefits by working with random samples because it is usually impossible to measure the entire population.

However, there are tradeoffs when you use samples. The samples we use are typically a miniscule percentage of the entire population. Consequently, they occasionally misrepresent the population severely enough to cause hypothesis tests to make errors.

In this blog post, you will learn about the two types of errors in hypothesis testing, their causes, and how to manage them. [Read more…] about Types of Errors in Hypothesis Testing

## Practical vs. Statistical Significance

You’ve just performed a hypothesis test and your results are statistically significant. Hurray! These results are important, right? Not so fast. Statistical significance does not necessarily mean that the results are practically significant in a real-world sense of importance.

In this blog post, I’ll talk about the differences between practical significance and statistical significance, and how to determine if your results are meaningful in the real world.

[Read more…] about Practical vs. Statistical Significance

## Estimating a Good Sample Size for Your Study Using Power Analysis

Determining a good sample size for a study is always an important issue. After all, using the wrong sample size can doom your study from the start. Fortunately, power analysis can find the answer for you. Power analysis combines statistical analysis, subject-area knowledge, and your requirements to help you derive the optimal sample size for your study.

Statistical power in a hypothesis test is the probability that the test will detect an effect that actually exists. As you’ll see in this post, both under-powered and over-powered studies are problematic. Let’s learn how to find a good sample size for your study! [Read more…] about Estimating a Good Sample Size for Your Study Using Power Analysis

## Comparing Hypothesis Tests for Continuous, Binary, and Count Data

In a previous blog post, I introduced the basic concepts of hypothesis testing and explained the need for performing these tests. In this post, I’ll build on that and compare various types of hypothesis tests that you can use with different types of data, explore some of the options, and explain how to interpret the results. Along the way, I’ll point out important planning considerations, related analyses, and pitfalls to avoid. [Read more…] about Comparing Hypothesis Tests for Continuous, Binary, and Count Data

## Statistical Hypothesis Testing Overview

In this blog post, I explain why you need to use statistical hypothesis testing and help you navigate the essential terminology. Hypothesis testing is a crucial procedure to perform when you want to make inferences about a population using a random sample. These inferences include estimating population properties such as the mean, differences between means, proportions, and the relationships between variables. [Read more…] about Statistical Hypothesis Testing Overview

## Flu Shots, How Effective Are They?

With the arrival of Fall in the Northern hemisphere, it’s flu season again.

Do you debate getting a flu shot every year? I do get flu shots every year. I realize that they’re not perfect, but I figure they’re a low-cost way to reduce my chances of a crummy week suffering from the flu.

The media report that flu shots have an effectiveness of approximately 68%. But, what does that mean exactly? What is the absolute reduction in risk? Are there long-term benefits?

In this blog post, I explore the effectiveness of flu shots from a statistical viewpoint. We’ll statistically analyze the data ourselves so we can go beyond the simplified accounts that the media presents. I’ll also model the long-term outcomes you can expect with regular flu vaccinations. By the time you finish this post, you’ll have a crystal clear picture of flu shot effectiveness. Some of the results surprised me! [Read more…] about Flu Shots, How Effective Are They?

## Degrees of Freedom in Statistics

In statistics, the degrees of freedom (DF) indicate the number of independent values that can vary in an analysis without breaking any constraints. It is an important idea that appears in many contexts throughout statistics including hypothesis tests, probability distributions, and regression analysis. Learn how this fundamental concept affects the power and precision of your statistical analysis!

In this blog post, I bring this concept to life in an intuitive manner. I’ll start by defining degrees of freedom. However, I’ll quickly move on to practical examples in a variety of contexts because they make this concept easier to understand. [Read more…] about Degrees of Freedom in Statistics

## Use Control Charts with Hypothesis Tests

Typically, quality improvement analysts use control charts to assess business processes and don’t have hypothesis tests in mind. Do you know how control charts provide tremendous benefits in other settings and with hypothesis testing? Spoilers—control charts check an assumption that we often forget about for hypothesis tests! [Read more…] about Use Control Charts with Hypothesis Tests

## What is the Relationship Between the Reproducibility of Experimental Results and P Values?

The ability to reproduce experimental results should be related to P values. After all, both of these statistical concepts have similar foundations.

- P values help you separate the signal of population level effects from the noise in sample data.
- Reproducible results support the notion that the findings can be generalized to the population rather than applying only to a specific sample.

So, P values are related to reproducibility in theory. But, does this relationship exist in the real world? In this blog post, I present the findings of an exciting study that answers this question! [Read more…] about What is the Relationship Between the Reproducibility of Experimental Results and P Values?

## Why Are P Values Misinterpreted So Frequently?

P values are commonly misinterpreted. It’s a very slippery concept that requires a lot of background knowledge to understand. Not surprisingly, I’ve received many questions about P values in statistical hypothesis testing over the years. However, one question stands out. *Why* are P value misinterpretations so prevalent? I answer that question in this blog post, and help you avoid making the same mistakes. [Read more…] about Why Are P Values Misinterpreted So Frequently?

## Confidence Intervals vs Prediction Intervals vs Tolerance Intervals

Intervals are estimation methods in statistics that use sample data to produce ranges of values that are likely to contain the population value of interest. In contrast, point estimates are single value estimates of a population value. Of the different types of statistical intervals, confidence intervals are the most well-known. However, certain kinds of analyses and situations call for other types of ranges that provide different information. [Read more…] about Confidence Intervals vs Prediction Intervals vs Tolerance Intervals