There are several ways to find the mode depending upon the data type and sample size. In statistics, the mode is the most frequently occurring value in a data set. It is a measure of central tendency. To learn more about the mode, read my post, Measures of Central Tendency. [Read more…] about How to Find the Mode

# Basics

## Bimodal Distribution: Definition, Examples & Analysis

A bimodal distribution has two peaks. In the context of a continuous probability distribution, modes are peaks in the distribution. The graph below shows a bimodal distribution. [Read more…] about Bimodal Distribution: Definition, Examples & Analysis

## Quartile: Definition, Finding, and Using

## What are Quartiles?

Quartiles are three values that split your dataset into quarters. [Read more…] about Quartile: Definition, Finding, and Using

## Construct Validity: Definition and Assessment

## What is Construct Validity?

Construct validity relates to the soundness of inferences that you draw from test scores and other measurements. Specifically, it addresses whether a test measures the intended construct. For example, does a test that evaluates self-esteem truly measure that construct or something else? [Read more…] about Construct Validity: Definition and Assessment

## Qualitative Research: Goals, Methods & Benefits

Qualitative research aims to understand ideas, experiences, and opinions using non-numeric data, such as text, audio, and visual recordings. The focus is on language, behaviors, and social structures. Qualitative researchers want to present personal experiences and produce narrative stories that use natural language to provide meaningful answers to their research questions. [Read more…] about Qualitative Research: Goals, Methods & Benefits

## What is a Variable?

The definition of a variable changes depending on the context. Typically, a letter represents them, and it stands in for a numerical value. In algebra, a variable represents an unknown value that you need to find. For mathematical functions and equations, you input their values to calculate the output. In an equation, a coefficient is a fixed value by which you multiply the variable.

In statistics, a variable is a characteristic of interest that you measure, record, and analyze. Statisticians understand them by defining the type of information they record and their role in an experiment or study. [Read more…] about What is a Variable?

## Kurtosis: Definition, Leptokurtic & Platykurtic

## What is Kurtosis?

Kurtosis is a statistic that measures the extent to which a distribution contains outliers. It assesses the propensity of a distribution to have extreme values within its tails. There are three kinds of kurtosis: leptokurtic, platykurtic, and mesokurtic. Statisticians define these types relative to the normal distribution. Higher kurtosis values indicate that the distribution has more outliers falling relatively far from the mean. Distributions with smaller values have a lower tendency for producing extreme values. When you’re assessing a sample, outliers have the greatest impact on this statistic. [Read more…] about Kurtosis: Definition, Leptokurtic & Platykurtic

## Reliability vs Validity: Differences & Examples

Reliability and validity are criteria by which researchers assess measurement quality. Measuring a person or item involves assigning scores to represent an attribute. This process creates the data that we analyze. However, to provide meaningful research results, that data must be good. And not all data are good! [Read more…] about Reliability vs Validity: Differences & Examples

## Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales

The nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales are levels of measurement in statistics. These scales are broad classifications describing the type of information recorded within the values of your variables. Variables take on different values in your data set. For example, you can measure height, gender, and class ranking. Each of these variables uses a distinct level of measurement. [Read more…] about Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales

## Case Control Study: Definition, Benefits & Examples

## What is a Case Control Study?

A case control study is a retrospective, observational study that compares two existing groups. Researchers form these groups based on the existence of a condition in the case group and the lack of that condition in the control group. They evaluate the differences in the histories between these two groups looking for factors that might cause a disease. [Read more…] about Case Control Study: Definition, Benefits & Examples

## 5 Number Summary: Definition, Finding & Using

## What is the 5 Number Summary?

The 5 number summary is an exploratory data analysis tool that provides insight into the distribution of values for one variable. Collectively, this set of statistics describes where data values occur, their central tendency, variability, and the general shape of their distribution. [Read more…] about 5 Number Summary: Definition, Finding & Using

## Simple Random Sampling: Definition & Examples

## What is Simple Random Sampling?

Simple random sampling (SRS) is a probability sampling method where researchers randomly choose participants from a population. All population members have an equal probability of being selected. This method tends to produce representative, unbiased samples. [Read more…] about Simple Random Sampling: Definition & Examples

## Convenience Sampling: Definition & Examples

## What is Convenience Sampling?

Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling method where researchers use subjects who are easy to contact and obtain their participation. Researchers find participants in the most accessible places, and they impose no inclusion requirements. Convenience sampling is also known as opportunity or availability sampling. [Read more…] about Convenience Sampling: Definition & Examples

## Systematic Sampling: Definition, Advantages & Examples

## What is Systematic Sampling?

Systematic sampling is a probability sampling method for obtaining a representative sample from a population. To use this method, researchers start at a random point and then select subjects at regular intervals of every n^{th} member of the population. Like other probability sampling methods, the researchers must identify their population of interest before sampling from it. [Read more…] about Systematic Sampling: Definition, Advantages & Examples

## Variance: Definition, Formulas & Calculations

Variance is a measure of variability in statistics. It assesses the average squared difference between data values and the mean. Unlike some other statistical measures of variability, it incorporates all data points in its calculations by contrasting each value to the mean. [Read more…] about Variance: Definition, Formulas & Calculations

## Natural Numbers: Definition & Examples

## What are Natural Numbers?

Natural numbers are the numbers you use for counting—for example, its definition includes all the positive integers from 1 to infinity. These numbers occur in nature and are the fundamental origins of the number system. Consequently, we see examples of natural numbers all around us in the world. [Read more…] about Natural Numbers: Definition & Examples

## Validity in Research and Psychology: Types & Examples

## What is Validity in Psychology, Research, and Statistics?

Validity in research, statistics, psychology, and testing evaluates how well test scores reflect what they’re supposed to measure. Does the instrument measure what it claims to measure? Do the measurements reflect the underlying reality? Or do they quantify something else? [Read more…] about Validity in Research and Psychology: Types & Examples

## Internal and External Validity

Internal and external validity relate to the findings of studies and experiments. [Read more…] about Internal and External Validity

## Discrete vs. Continuous Data: Differences & Examples

Discrete vs continuous data are two broad categories of numeric variables. Numeric variables represent characteristics that you can express as numbers rather than descriptive language.

When you have a numeric variable, you need to determine whether it is discrete or continuous.

In broad strokes, the critical factor is the following:

- You count discrete data.
- You measure continuous data.

[Read more…] about Discrete vs. Continuous Data: Differences & Examples

## Geometric Mean: Definition, Formula & Finding

## What is the Geometric Mean?

The geometric mean is a measure of central tendency that averages a set of products. Its formula takes the n^{th} root of the product of n numbers.

Like the arithmetic mean, the geometric mean finds the center of a dataset. While the arithmetic mean finds the center by summing the values and dividing by the number of observations, the geometric mean finds the center by multiplying and then taking a root of the product. [Read more…] about Geometric Mean: Definition, Formula & Finding