What’s the risk? People discuss risk frequently, but it’s not always clearly understood. It is your exposure to danger or adverse outcomes. Statistically, we define risk as the probability of a negative outcome occurring, and there are several ways to calculate it. [Read more…] about Risk Calculations: Relative vs Absolute & Risk Reduction
What are Hazard Ratios?
A hazard ratio (HR) is the probability of an event in a treatment group relative to the control group probability over a unit of time. This ratio is an effect size measure for time-to-event data. Use hazard ratios to estimate the treatment effect in clinical trials when you want to assess time-to-event.
For example, HRs can determine whether a medical treatment reduces the duration of symptoms or prolongs survival in cancer patients. [Read more…] about Hazard Ratio: Interpretation & Definition
What is Relative Risk?
Relative risk is the ratio of the probability of an adverse outcome in an exposure group divided by its likelihood in an unexposed group. This statistic indicates whether exposure corresponds to increases, decreases, or no change in the probability of the adverse outcome. Use relative risk to measure the strength of the association between exposure and the outcome. Analysts also refer to this statistic as the risk ratio. [Read more…] about Relative Risk: Definition, Formula & Interpretation
What is an Odds Ratio?
An odds ratio (OR) calculates the relationship between a variable and the likelihood of an event occurring. A common interpretation for odds ratios is identifying risk factors by assessing the relationship between exposure to a risk factor and a medical outcome. For example, is there an association between exposure to a chemical and a disease? [Read more…] about Odds Ratio: Formula, Calculating & Interpreting