In statistics, standardization is the process of putting different variables on the same scale. This process allows you to compare scores between different types of variables. Typically, to standardize variables, you calculate the mean and standard deviation for a variable. Then, for each observed value of the variable, you subtract the mean and divide by the standard deviation.
This process produces standard scores that represent the number of standard deviations above or below the mean that a specific observation falls. For instance, a standardized value of 2 indicates that the observation falls 2 standard deviations above the mean. This interpretation is true regardless of the type of variable that you standardize.